Michele Covell and Chris Bregler, "Eigen-points," Proceedings of 3rd IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. Lausanne, Switzerland, September 16-19, 1996. pp. 471-4 vol. 3.
Eigen-points places control points onto unmarked images. The
control points are the image locations corresponding to fiduciary
points on an object. For example, we might designate ten points
on the outside boundary of the lip as fiduciary points on a face.
Then, the control points mark the image locations where those
points on the outside lip boundary appear. The control-point locations
are estimated using a coupled manifold model, which
describes the joint variation of the image appearance and the control-